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The artist places a piece of paper or cloth etc. The print resembles a drawing. However from — a photo-mechanical "line-block" variant was the dominant form of commercial printing for images. He used the technique to print texts and images together, writing the text and drawing lines with an acid-resistant medium. There are two common types of ground: hard ground and soft ground.
Hard ground can be applied in two ways. Solid hard ground comes in a hard waxy block. To apply hard ground of this variety, the plate to be etched is placed upon a hot-plate set at 70 degrees C , a kind of metal worktop that is heated up.
The plate heats up and the ground is applied by hand, melting onto the plate as it is applied. The ground is spread over the plate as evenly as possible using a roller. Once applied the etching plate is removed from the hot-plate and allowed to cool which hardens the ground. After the ground has hardened the artist "smokes" the plate, classically with 3 beeswax tapers, applying the flame to the plate to darken the ground and make it easier to see what parts of the plate are exposed.
Smoking not only darkens the plate but adds a small amount of wax. Afterwards the artist uses a sharp tool to scratch into the ground, exposing the metal. This comes in a can and is applied with a brush upon the plate to be etched. Exposed to air the hard ground will harden. Soft ground also comes in liquid form and is allowed to dry but it does not dry hard like hard ground and is impressionable.
After the soft ground has dried the printmaker may apply materials such as leaves, objects, hand prints and so on which will penetrate the soft ground and expose the plate underneath. The ground can also be applied in a fine mist, using powdered rosin or spraypaint. This process is called aquatint, and allows for the creation of tones, shadows, and solid areas of color.
An "echoppe" point can be made from an ordinary tempered steel etching needle, by grinding the point back on a carborundum stone, at a 45—60 degree angle.
It can be drawn with in the same way as an ordinary needle The plate is then completely submerged in an acid that eats away at the exposed metal. Ferric chloride may be used for etching copper or zinc plates, whereas nitric acid may be used for etching zinc or steel plates. The strength of the acid determines the speed of the etching process. The longer the plate remains in the acid the deeper the "bites" become.
Example of etching During the etching process the printmaker uses a bird feather or similar item to wave away bubbles and detritus produced by the dissolving process, from the surface of the plate, or the plate may be periodically lifted from the acid bath.
If a bubble is allowed to remain on the plate then it will stop the acid biting into the plate where the bubble touches it. Zinc produces more bubbles much more rapidly than copper and steel and some artists use this to produce interesting round bubble-like circles within their prints for a Milky Way effect. The detritus is powdery dissolved metal that fills the etched grooves and can also block the acid from biting evenly into the exposed plate surfaces. Another way to remove detritus from a plate is to place the plate to be etched face down within the acid upon plasticine balls or marbles, although the drawback of this technique is the exposure to bubbles and the inability to remove them readily.
For aquatinting a printmaker will often use a test strip of metal about a centimetre to three centimetres wide. The strip will be dipped into the acid for a specific number of minutes or seconds. The metal strip will then be removed and the acid washed off with water. Part of the strip will be covered in ground and then the strip is redipped into the acid and the process repeated. The ground will then be removed from the strip and the strip inked up and printed.
This will show the printmaker the different degrees or depths of the etch, and therefore the strength of the ink color, based upon how long the plate is left in the acid. The plate is removed from the acid and washed over with water to remove the acid. Turpentine is often removed from the plate using methylated spirits since turpentine is greasy and can affect the application of ink and the printing of the plate. Spit-biting is a process whereby the printmaker will apply acid to a plate with a brush in certain areas of the plate.
The plate may be aquatinted for this purpose or exposed directly to the acid. The process is known as "spit"-biting due to the use of saliva once used as a medium to dilute the acid, although gum arabic or water are now commonly used. The wiping leaves ink in the incisions. You may also use a folded piece of organza silk to do the final wipe. If copper or zinc plates are used, then the plate surface is left very clean and therefore white in the print.
As a result steel plates do not need aquatinting as gradual exposure of the plate via successive dips into acid will produce the same result. A damp piece of paper is placed over the plate and it is run through the press. An early innovation was the use of floor wax as a hard ground for coating the plate. The polymers are removed with sodium carbonate washing soda solution, rather than solvents.
When used for etching, ferric chloride does not produce a corrosive gas, as acids do, thus eliminating another danger of traditional etching. The traditional aquatint, which uses either powdered rosin or enamel spray paint, is replaced with an airbrush application of the acrylic polymer hard ground.
Again, no solvents are needed beyond the soda ash solution, though a ventilation hood is needed due to acrylic particulates from the air brush spray.
The traditional soft ground, requiring solvents for removal from the plate, is replaced with water-based relief printing ink. The ink receives impressions like traditional soft ground, resists the ferric chloride etchant, yet can be cleaned up with warm water and either soda ash solution or ammonia. Anodic etching has been used in industrial processes for over a century. The etching power is a source of direct current. The item to be etched anode is connected to its positive pole.
A receiver plate cathode is connected to its negative pole. Both, spaced slightly apart, are immersed in a suitable aqueous solution of a suitable electrolyte. The current pushes the metal out from the anode into solution and deposits it as metal on the cathode.
Jenis-jenis Etsa Pengetsaan Etching Hasil dari proses pemolesan akan berupa permukaan yang mengkilap seperti cermin. Agar struktur logam terlihat jelas maka permukaan tersebut dietsa. Berikut ini beberapa larutan etsa untuk pemeriksaan makro dan mikro yang biasa dipakai dalam metalografi. Bahan larutan etsa makro ; a. Pemakaiannya untuk besi dan baja. Penggunaannya untuk bahan besi dan baja.
Mengukir Logam dengan teknik Etsa
Mengukir Logam dengan teknik Etsa Published Maret 17, By admin Mengapa saya menulis artikel ini, apa hubungannya dengan keramik? Ternyata di keramik bisa dipakai untuk membuat gambar ukir pada mesin Pad Printing. Mungkin artikel ini saat ini tidak menarik perhatian anda. Tetapi tidak ada salahnya sekedar anda baca, siapa tahu nanti anda membutuhkan? Teknik etsa sudah dipakai lama didunia percetakan jaman dahulu. Yaitu huruf text yang disusun untuk membuat artikel dikoran-koran.
The artist places a piece of paper or cloth etc. The print resembles a drawing. However from — a photo-mechanical "line-block" variant was the dominant form of commercial printing for images. He used the technique to print texts and images together, writing the text and drawing lines with an acid-resistant medium. There are two common types of ground: hard ground and soft ground. Hard ground can be applied in two ways. Solid hard ground comes in a hard waxy block.