Tae ver ws ped by Leigh Pes Liege. Munson was on the mechanical engineering faulty of Duke University from to Professor Okishi is active in reseach on turbomachinery fluid dynamics. He isa Tieensed professional engineer.

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This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Analysis A substance in the liquid or gas phase is referred to as a fluid.

A fluid differs from a solid in that a solid can resist an applied shear stress by deforming, whereas a fluid deforms continuously under the influence of shear stress, no matter how small. A liquid takes the shape of the container it is in, and a liquid forms a free surface in a larger container in a gravitational field. A gas, on the other hand, expands until it encounters the walls of the container and fills the entire available space.

Discussion The subject of fluid mechanics deals with ball fluids, both gases and liquids. Analysis The flow of air over the wings of an aircraft is external since this is an unbounded fluid flow over a surface. The flow of gases through a jet engine is internal flow since the fluid is completely bounded by the solid surfaces of the engine. Discussion If we consider the entire airplane, the flow is both internal through the jet engines and external over the body and wings. Analysis A fluid flow during which the density of the fluid remains nearly constant is called incompressible flow.

A flow in which density varies significantly is called compressible flow. The flow of compressible fluid such as air does not necessarily need to be treated as compressible since the density of a compressible fluid may still remain nearly constant during flow — especially flow at low speeds.

Discussion It turns out that the Mach number is the critical parameter to determine whether the flow of a gas can be approximated as an incompressible flow. If Ma is less than about 0. Analysis External flow is the flow of an unbounded fluid over a surface such as a plate, a wire, or a pipe.

The flow in a pipe or duct is internal flow if the fluid is completely bounded by solid surfaces. The flow of liquids in a pipe is called open-channel flow if the pipe is partially filled with the liquid and there is a free surface, such as the flow of water in rivers and irrigation ditches.

Discussion As we shall see in later chapters, different approximations are used in the analysis of fluid flows based on their classification. Analysis The Mach number of a flow is defined as the ratio of the speed of flow to the speed of sound in the flowing fluid. A Mach number of 2 indicate a flow speed that is twice the speed of sound in that fluid.

Discussion Mach number is an example of a dimensionless or nondimensional parameter. Analysis No. The speed of sound, and thus the Mach number, changes with temperature which may change considerably from point to point in the atmosphere.

Therefore, air flow with a Mach number of 0. Discussion Air is of course a compressible fluid, but at low Mach numbers, compressibility effects are insignificant.

Analysis A fluid in direct contact with a solid surface sticks to the surface and there is no slip. This is known as the no-slip condition, and it is due to the viscosity of the fluid. Discussion There is no such thing as an inviscid fluid, since all fluids have viscosity. We are also to discuss whether wind-driven flows are forced or natural.

Analysis In forced flow, the fluid is forced to flow over a surface or in a tube by external means such as a pump or a fan. In natural flow, any fluid motion is caused by natural means such as the buoyancy effect that manifests itself as the rise of the warmer fluid and the fall of the cooler fluid.

The flow caused by winds is natural flow for the earth, but it is forced flow for bodies subjected to the winds since for the body it makes no difference whether the air motion is caused by a fan or by the winds. Discussion As seen here, the classification of forced vs. Analysis The region of flow usually near a wall in which the velocity gradients are significant and frictional effects are important is called the boundary layer.

When a fluid stream encounters a solid surface that is at rest, the fluid velocity assumes a value of zero at that surface. The velocity then varies from zero at the surface to some larger value sufficiently far from the surface. The development of a boundary layer is caused by the no-slip condition. Discussion As we shall see later, flow within a boundary layer is rotational individual fluid particles rotate , while that outside the boundary layer is typically irrotational individual fluid particles move, but do not rotate.

Analysis The classical approach is a macroscopic approach, based on experiments or analysis of the gross behavior of a fluid, without knowledge of individual molecules, whereas the statistical approach is a microscopic approach based on the average behavior of large groups of individual molecules.

Discussion The classical approach is easier and much more common in fluid flow analysis. Analysis A process is said to be steady if it involves no changes with time anywhere within the system or at the system boundaries. Discussion The opposite of steady flow is unsteady flow, which involves changes with time. Analysis Stress is defined as force per unit area, and is determined by dividing the force by the area upon which it acts.

The normal component of a force acting on a surface per unit area is called the normal stress, and the tangential component of a force acting on a surface per unit area is called shear stress. In a fluid at rest, the normal stress is called pressure. Discussion Fluids in motion may have both shear stresses and additional normal stresses besides pressure, but when a fluid is at rest, the only normal stress is the pressure, and there are no shear stresses. We are to discuss how to select system when analyzing the acceleration of gases as they flow through a Analysis When analyzing the acceleration of gases as they flow through a nozzle, a wise choice for the system is the volume within the nozzle, bounded by the entire inner surface of the nozzle and the inlet and outlet cross-sections.

This is a control volume or open system since mass crosses the boundary. Discussion It would be much more difficult to follow a chunk of air as a closed system as it flows through the nozzle.

Analysis Systems may be considered to be closed or open, depending on whether a fixed mass or a volume in space is chosen for study. A closed system also known as a control mass or simply a system consists of a fixed amount of mass, and no mass can cross its boundary.

An open system, or a control volume, is a selected region in space. Mass may cross the boundary of a control volume or open system Discussion In thermodynamics, it is more common to use the terms open system and closed system, but in fluid mechanics, it is more common to use the terms system and control volume to mean the same things, respectively. Analysis We would most likely take the system as the air contained in the piston-cylinder device.

This system is a closed or fixed mass system when it is compressing and no mass enters or leaves it. However, it is an open system during intake or exhaust. Discussion In this example, the system boundary is the same for either case — closed or open system. Analysis A system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study. The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings. The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary.

This has been a source of confusion for students for many years. Analysis In this unit, the word light refers to the speed of light. The light-year unit is then the product of a velocity and time.

Hence, this product forms a distance dimension and unit. Analysis The unit kilogram kg is the mass unit in the SI system, and it is sometimes called kg-mass, whereas kgforce kgf is a force unit. One kg-force is the force required to accelerate a 1-kg mass by 9. In other words, the weight of 1-kg mass at sea level on earth is 1 kg-force. Discussion dimensions. Analysis Pound-mass lbm is the mass unit in English system whereas pound-force lbf is the force unit in the English system.

One pound-force is the force required to accelerate a mass of In other words, the weight of a 1-lbm mass at sea level on earth is 1 lbf. Discussion It is not proper to say that one lbm is equal to one lbf since the two units have different dimensions. Analysis system. Analysis There is no acceleration car moving at constant velocity , thus the net force is zero in both cases.

If there is zero acceleration, there must be zero net force. The weight of the combined system is to be determined. Assumptions The density of water is constant throughout.

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## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics (5th Edition) - Munson, Okiishi

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