And if you are a man or a John Locke was the Father of British Empiricist Philosophy - the philosophy of down-to-earth, ordinary, everyday simple observation and experiment. It is a wonderful book, especially in our Age of Widespread Confusion. It will untie your knots and give you peace of mind and may just lead you to the peaceful end of your own personal Odyssey. It is an old book, though, so be forewarned.
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His mother was Agnes Keene. Both parents were Puritans. Locke was born on 29 August , in a small thatched cottage by the church in Wrington , Somerset, about 12 miles from Bristol. He was baptised the same day. After completing studies there, he was admitted to Christ Church , Oxford , in the autumn of at the age of twenty. The dean of the college at the time was John Owen , vice-chancellor of the university. Although a capable student, Locke was irritated by the undergraduate curriculum of the time.
Through his friend Richard Lower , whom he knew from the Westminster School, Locke was introduced to medicine and the experimental philosophy being pursued at other universities and in the Royal Society , of which he eventually became a member.
Ashley was impressed with Locke and persuaded him to become part of his retinue. In London, Locke resumed his medical studies under the tutelage of Thomas Sydenham. Locke coordinated the advice of several physicians and was probably instrumental in persuading Ashley to undergo surgery then life-threatening itself to remove the cyst.
Ashley survived and prospered, crediting Locke with saving his life. During this time, Locke served as Secretary of the Board of Trade and Plantations and Secretary to the Lords Proprietors of Carolina, which helped to shape his ideas on international trade and economics. Locke became involved in politics when Ashley became Lord Chancellor in Ashley being created 1st Earl of Shaftesbury in While it was once thought that Locke wrote the Treatises to defend the Glorious Revolution of , recent scholarship has shown that the work was composed well before this date.
Although Locke was associated with the influential Whigs, his ideas about natural rights and government are today considered quite revolutionary for that period in English history. Locke fled to the Netherlands in , under strong suspicion of involvement in the Rye House Plot , although there is little evidence to suggest that he was directly involved in the scheme. Locke did not return home until after the Glorious Revolution.
Locke accompanied Mary II back to England in Although his time there was marked by variable health from asthma attacks, he nevertheless became an intellectual hero of the Whigs. During this period he discussed matters with such figures as John Dryden and Isaac Newton. He died on 28 October , and is buried in the churchyard of the village of High Laver ,  east of Harlow in Essex, where he had lived in the household of Sir Francis Masham since Locke never married nor had children.
He did not quite see the Act of Union of , though the thrones of England and Scotland were held in personal union throughout his lifetime. However, with the rise of American resistance to British taxation, the Second Treatise gained a new readership; it was frequently cited in the debates in both America and Britain. The first American printing occurred in in Boston. Michael Zuckert has argued that Locke launched liberalism by tempering Hobbesian absolutism and clearly separating the realms of Church and State.
He had a strong influence on Voltaire who called him "le sage Locke". His arguments concerning liberty and the social contract later influenced the written works of Alexander Hamilton , James Madison , Thomas Jefferson , and other Founding Fathers of the United States.
In fact, one passage from the Second Treatise is reproduced verbatim in the Declaration of Independence, the reference to a "long train of abuses". I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures which have been raised in the Physical and Moral sciences".
Three arguments are central: 1 Earthly judges, the state in particular, and human beings generally, cannot dependably evaluate the truth-claims of competing religious standpoints; 2 Even if they could, enforcing a single "true religion" would not have the desired effect, because belief cannot be compelled by violence; 3 Coercing religious uniformity would lead to more social disorder than allowing diversity.
His tract The Bloody Tenent of Persecution for Cause of Conscience , which was widely read in the mother country, was a passionate plea for absolute religious freedom and the total separation of church and state. Detractors note that in he was a major investor in the English slave-trade through the Royal African Company. For example, Martin Cohen notes that Locke, as a secretary to the Council of Trade and Plantations — and a member of the Board of Trade — , was in fact, "one of just half a dozen men who created and supervised both the colonies and their iniquitous systems of servitude".
Collectively, these documents are known as the Grand Model for the Province of Carolina. Theory of value and property Locke uses the word property in both broad and narrow senses. In a broad sense, it covers a wide range of human interests and aspirations; more narrowly, it refers to material goods. He argues that property is a natural right and it is derived from labour.
This position can be seen as a labour theory of value. In addition, he believed that property precedes government and government cannot "dispose of the estates of the subjects arbitrarily. Political theory.
Bruno was a learned man of broad philosophical interests. He evidently liked to stir things up. And he may even have been somewhat mad. His challenging cosmology was more Copernican than Ptolemaic—and he could disturb the faithful by speculating about such things as the infinitude of the universe. It was obvious by the middle of the seventeenth century that a new intellectual and social era had opened, with the beginnings of what we know as the Enlightenment grounded in the modern scientific enterprise. Hapsburg attempts to restore Catholicism in Germany were resisted in 25 years of fighting; the Peace of Augsburg guarantee of religious independence to local princes and cities was confirmed only after the Thirty Years War , when much of Germany was devastated by local and foreign armies Sweden, France. How strife was to be eliminated, or at least moderated, was a constant concern of thoughtful men and women in the seventeenth century and thereafter.
John Locke on “The Reasonableness of Christianity”
The answer might even seem intuitive: It means that our faculty of reason allows for an accurate interpretation and understanding of the Word. Indeed, Locke wrote that man can understand Revelation by his reason and thereby affirm Christianity as true. The reasoning for this claim is as follows: If reason is the gatekeeper and ultimate arbiter of truth, then it would mean that it is reason, not Christianity, which has the last word in determining what is true or not. Put brusquely, reason—and not faith itself—is what validates faith. An initial reception of The Reasonableness purported that Locke was placing reason over revelation, stamping a mark of Socinianism on the book because Socinians were known for practicing a form of biblical theology that relied on reason over tradition to interpret revelation.