Akijas Hallucinations may occur in different sensory modalities e. Nonetheless, auditory hallucinations are the most common, especially in patients with schizophrenia David and Busatto, Hallucinatory or hallucinatory-like experiences cannot be reliably and validly assessed only as a matter of frequency or intensity. Portuguese version of the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale. This is not to deny the importance of studies on hallucinations in non-psychotic persons or the presence of hallucinations in normal population, but rather to challenge the kind of methodology used to date to assess this phenomenon. Indeed, the onset of psychosis is often preceded by an increased frequency of nonclinical psychotic symptoms e.

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Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. Published online Sep Corresponding author. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. For instance, one review Beavan et al. According to Beavan et al. In their review, Beavan et al. In addition, these experiences may be underreported by some groups to avoid stigma discrimination. In the Maijer et al. There is some evidence that psychotic disorders begin with subthreshold HLEs combined with delusional ideation Smeets, Lataster, van Winkel, et al.

Over time, the LSHS has been repeatedly revised and improved. To account for different intensities of responding, the original binary choice i. This version of the scale also included items on hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations and on the experience of sensed presence i. Finally, Vellante et al.

The establishment of measurement invariance is a prerequisite to comparing groups, because it provides evidence of whether respondents representing different clinical or sociocultural backgrounds interpret a given measure in a conceptually similar manner.

METHODS The competent institutional review boards approved the study protocol in accordance with the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki as revised in Tokyo in , and further revised in Fortaleza, Brazil, in A nonmonetary compensation for participation was offered to the participants from the general population. Participants who reported the same answers for all items were excluded. Participation was strictly anonymous. When participants accessed the online survey, they were first informed about the study and told that they could withdraw from the study at any time without penalty.

People from the general population were invited via advertisements in social media Facebook, Institutional websites, etc. When accessing the online survey, participants were asked to answer questions concerning their sociodemographic data e.

They were required to exclude any experiences where they might have been under the effect of drugs or alcohol. People with mental disorders This group was composed of people with a verified psychiatric diagnosis and people who reported a psychiatric disorder in their lives. Exclusion criteria were a current or past diagnosis of alcohol or substance abuse disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition American Psychiatric Association, , or a concurrent neurological illness.

They also provided written informed consent and completed the questionnaire with the help of a psychologist at the outpatient clinic where they were being treated.

Data from 82 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included. Of the patients who were included, 50 had a psychotic disorder 41 with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, six with schizoaffective disorder, and three with delusional disorder and 32 were diagnosed with a mood disorder 14 with depression disorder, 14 with bipolar disorder, three with a mixed affective disorder, and one with an anxiety disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria American Psychiatric Association, People who reported a diagnosis of mental disorder This group included people who were recruited online from the Barcelona metropolitan and suburban areas.

They reported having received a diagnosis of a mental disorder and mentioned a specific medication and psychological treatment for it. Data from 29 people nine with depression, nine with anxiety, 10 with other psychiatric disorders such as anorexia and personality disorders, and one not classified were included in the group of patients. Inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria were the same as for the people with mental disorders except for having received a diagnosis of a mental disorder.

Participants who did not complete the survey were excluded. Measures The survey was composed of: 2. In this version of the LSHS, items tap into sensory modalities other than auditory, such as the visual, olfactory, and tactile modalities. The scale also includes items on hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations and on the experience of sensed presence i.

Adaptation of the scale to Spanish culture was required to avoid potential misinterpretation, because some semantic characteristics of the scale could be slightly different from the original language.

For group comparisons, reliability values of 0. The group with verified psychiatric disorders and the group that reported having received a diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder were fused into one group: People with mental disorders. The results obtained using this package have been shown to be consistent with other software packages Narayanan, Maximum likelihood estimation with robust standard errors and Satorra—Bentler scaled test statistic was used to test CFA models.

RMSEA values of 0. Therefore, it provides more realistic estimates of the true reliability of the scale. A factor loading of 0. Factor mean scores were calculated by adding up item scores and then averaging the sum by the number of items for each factor. This was to compensate for the unequal number of items in the factors.

Measurement invariance by clinical status past diagnosis of a mental disorder vs. Configural, metric, scalar, and mean invariance was tested. Configural invariance refers to whether the same CFA model is valid in each group. Metric invariance concerns the equivalence of the factorial loadings across groups.

Scalar invariance is assumed when the item intercepts and the factor loadings are equally constrained across groups. The confirmation of the invariance of the intercepts scalar invariance allows a comparison of the latent means in both groups. Models with the lowest BIC are preferred Kim et al. Threshold for AUC were 0. Sensitivity and specificity were used to derive the cutoff that best differentiated the patients from controls.

Positive and negative predictive values are better understood in cohort studies. As for the positive diagnostic likelihood ratio, the higher its value, the more useful is the test.

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Quality of hallucinatory experiences: differences between a clinical and a non-clinical sample

What is different is the personal quality of these experiences. Hallucinatory or hallucinatory-like experiences cannot be reliably and validly assessed only as a matter of frequency or intensity. Their assessment requires a precise characterization of the phenomenal quality of the experience. As recently argued by Kendler 19 , psychopathological assessment should neither be confined to determining the presence or absence of a given symptom, nor should it simply focus on surface symptoms picked for their reliability.


Revision of the factor structure of the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS-R)

Mikaramar Disposition towards hallucination, gender and EPQ scores: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: Is this my voice or yours? This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button. This paper has been referenced on Twitter 2 times over the past 90 days. Further evidence of the multi-dimensionality of hallucinatory predisposition: These results corroborate the multimodal nature of nonclinical hallucinations e. During the presentation of the questions, items remained at the center of the computer screen until a response was made.






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